This course introduces basic principles of nutrition with emphasis on nutritional requirements and their application to individual patient needs. Topics include the study of the food pyramid, nutrient functions, Recommended Daily Allowances, and related psychological principles. Upon completion, students should be abel to recommend and counsel individuals on their food intake as related to their dental health.

Prerequisites: Enrollment in dental hygiene program

Corequisites: None

Class Hours: 2        Lab Hours: 0        Clinical/Work Exp.: 0        Credit Hours: 2



  • State the common physiologic functions of the six nutrient classifications of foods.

  • Determine various factors that influence food habits.

  • Demonstrate an understanding of the Food Guide Pyramid through its use.

  • State the Dietary Guidelines of Americans and their purpose.

  • Identify food choices that have a significant effect on the intake of calories, fats, salt, and sugar.

  • Assess dietary intake of a client, using the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Food Guide Pyramid/My Plate.

  • Discuss the purpose of the RDAís.

  • Discuss the purpose of the Food Guide Pyramid/My Plate.

  • Discuss the purpose of the RDIís.


  • Discuss factors that influence food intake.

  • Describe the process of digestion and absorption.

  • Name the nutrients that must undergo digestion.

  • List digested products that are absorbed.

  • Discuss gastrointestinal motility and its role in the digestion and absorption process.

  • Apply digestion and absorption processes that affect nutritional status into dental hygiene.


  • Identify major carbohydrates in foods and in the body.

  • State the various uses of glucose in the body.

  • State the functions of dietary carbohydrate.

  • State the significance of carbohydrates in the diet.

  • Identify dietary sources of various sugars and starches.

  • State the role of dietary fiber.

  • Identify various sources of dietary fiber.

  • State the number of calories provided per gram of carbohydrate.

  • Discuss the significance of carbohydrates in caries production.

  • Make recommendations concerning carbohydrate intake when counseling clients in the prevention of dental caries.


  • Explain the fate of amino acids.

  • Classify foods as high-quality or lower-quality proteins.

  • Explain how protein foods can be used to complement one another.

  • Recommend appropriate food choices for recommended protein levels for a meat-containing diet and a vegetarian diet.

  • Explain why various physiologic states require different amounts of protein.

  • Identify problems associated with protein deficiency or excess.

  • Evaluate protein intake in terms of deficiency or excess.

  • Utilize nutritional principles relating to protein intake to determine protein deficiency and excess.


  • Identify the basic structural units of dietary lipids.

  • Describe the effects of fatty acids on the properties of fat.

  • Name the essential fatty acid and some of its functions.

  • Identify the functions of fat in the body.

  • List dietary sources for saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and cholesterol.

  • Differentiate between chylomicrons and various lipoproteins.

  • State the number of calories provided per gram of fat.

  • Utilize nutritional principles relating to lipid intake to determine lipid deficiency and excess.


  • Calculate energy needs based on client weight and activities.

  • Explain physiologic sources of energy.

  • Identify factors which have an effect on the basal metabolic rate.

  • Assess factors that may have an effect on energy balance.

  • Describe the effects of insufficient energy intake.

  • Discuss the concepts related to the regulation of energy balance with a patient.


  • Name the fat-soluble vitamins.

  • Compare the characteristics of water-soluble vitamins with those of fat-soluble vitamins.

  • Identify functions, deficiencies, excesses, toxicities, and oral manifestations for vitamins.

  • Determine food sources for vitamins.

  • Discuss nutritional counseling for patients regarding vitamins A, B,D, E, K, and C.


  • List the minerals found in collagen, bones, and teeth.

  • Discuss the main physiologic roles and sources of minerals in collagen, bone, and teeth.

  • Discuss causes and symptoms of excessive mineral intake or deficiencies.

  • Discuss the significance of water fluoridation in the prevention of dental decay.

  • List the advantages and disadvantages of mineral supplementation.

  • Discuss dental hygiene considerations and directions for patients regarding calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and fluoride.


  • List physiologic roles and sources of copper, selenium, chromium, and manganese.

  • State the ultratrace elements that can be found in the body.

  • Explain why excesses of a specific mineral may cause nutritional deficiencies of another.

  • Discuss the significance of trace elements present in calcified structures as they relate to dental hygiene.

  • Utilize nutritional principles relating to trace elements to counsel patients.


  • Effects of Diet on Critical Periods of Development.


  • Discuss osmosis.

  • Explain fluid and electrolyte balance.

  • Identify normal fluid requirements.

  • Discuss factors that affect normal fluid requirements.

  • Discuss the role, disproportion, and sources of water.

  • Discuss the role, disproportion, and sources of sodium.

  • Discuss the role, disproportion, and sources of potassium.

  • Discuss the role, disproportion, and sources of iron.

  • Discuss the role, disproportion, and sources of zinc.

  • Discuss the role, disproportion, and sources of iodine.

  • Describe oral manifestations of fluid and electrolyte imbalances.

  • Describe and identify oral manifestations of iron deficiencies.

  • Describe and identify oral manifestations of zinc deficiencies.

  • Describe and identify oral manifestations of iodine deficiencies.

  • Discuss nutritional recommendations concerning fluid and electrolyte imbalances.

  • List diseases and/or medication that restrict sodium consumption.


  • Discuss how solid foods are introduced following bottle/breast feeding.

  • Discuss ways to manage common nutritional issues at the various stages of life.

  • Describe nutritional needs during the various stages of life that may influence dental hygiene treatment.

  • Discuss physiologic changes that alter the infant, adolescent, and elderly clientís nutritional status.

  • Discuss physiologic differences in infants, adolescents, and elderly that affect nutrition.

  • Compare the nutritional requirements of the elderly with young adults.

  • Describe factors that affect the diet of the elderly.

  • Discuss alterations in the elderly personís diet that will encourage optimal nutrition.


  • List supplemented nutrients during pregnancy and lactation.

  • Discuss dietary changes that may be needed to ensure adequate nutrients during pregnancy and lactation.

  • State high-risk factors for pregnancy.

  • Discuss issues for pregnant and breastfeeding patients as they relate to oral health and dental hygiene treatment.

  • Utilize nutritional principle to counsel lactating and pregnant patients.


  • Discuss the impact of cultural food patterns on nutritional status.

  • Understand the significance of cultural/religious food patterns in order to respectfully counsel patients.

  • Describe ways to optimize the nutritional value of food through food preparation and storage.

  • Discuss the impact of food processing, convenience food, and fast foods on nutrition.

  • State the rationale for food additives.

  • Discuss the significance of food fads, and dietary misinformation on the health status of an individual.


  • Identify diseases, conditions, and treatment that have an effect on nutrition.

  • Utilize nutritional principles to counsel patients with diseases/conditions that produce oral manifestations.


  • Discuss the significance of saliva, food, and plaque in the production of dental decay.

  • List foods that increase salivary flow.

  • Recommend food choices to reduce the risk of dental decay.

  • Describe the characteristics of foods that increase the risk of dental decay.

  • Describe the characteristics of foods that reduce the risk of dental decay.


  • Discuss the significance of nutrition in periodontal health and disease.

  • Discuss important nutritional factors in counseling patients with periodontal disease.

  • Differentiate among full liquid, mechanical soft, bland, and regular diets.


  • Describe the oral manifestations of xerostomia and glossitis.

  • Determine appropriate dietary recommendations for a client with xerostomia.

  • Determine appropriate dietary recommendations for a client with root caries.

  • Determine appropriate dietary recommendations for a client with removable appliances.


  • Discuss the significance in obtaining a thorough health, social, and dental history.

  • Describe the information needed to accurately assess a a patientís nutritional status.

  • Explain the various forms of diet histories and the appropriateness of their use.

  • Create a dietary treatment plan for a given patient.

  • Discuss the process for implementing a dietary treatment plan.

  • Describe the sequence during a nutritional counseling session.

  • Discuss communication skills that should be utilized for effective dietary counseling.


A Excellent 4 Grade Points Numerical grade of 90 - 100
B Above Average 3 Grade Points Numerical grade of 80 - 89
C Average 2 Grade Points Numerical grade of 70 - 79
D Below Average 1 Grade Point Numerical grade of 60 - 69
F Failed 0 Grade Point Numerical below 60
WP Withdraw Passing 0 Grade Point Issued if the course is dropped after the
census date and on or before the 60% point
of the course unless the instructor issues
a WF based on extenuating circumstances
WF Withdraw Failing 0 Grade Point Issued if the course is dropped after the
60% point of the course or the instructor
chooses based on extenuating circumstances


Regular, prompt attendance is essential for academic success. Students should strive for perfect attendance. It is recognized, however, that students may be absent from class occasionally. Students should reference the instructor's syllabus to determine the attendance requirement for this course. The instructor is responsible for enforcing the attendance requirement. It is the student's responsibility to withdraw from the course. Students may complete the withdrawal process in the Advising Center. Students may receive a grade of WP if they withdraw from a course by the 60% point/date of the course. Any student withdrawals that occur after the 60% point will result in a grade of WF. Exceptions to the "WF" grade may exist if the student has a mitigating circumstance. Students are encouraged to discuss withdrawal options with the faculty member and complete the withdrawal process in the Advising Center.


If you have a documented disability and wish to discuss academic accommodations, please contact Frank Pait, Counselor for Students with Disabilities, at extension 4222, in the Learning Assistance Center (LAC) located on the first floor of the Cuyler A. Dunbar Building (CAD).

If you are a student with a mobility impairment and have a class in a multi-story building, please discuss evacuation plans with your instructor.


Students shall be permitted excused absences from all classes two days per academic year for religious observances required by their faith. The absences requested in accordance with this policy are "one of" and not "in addition to" any absences otherwise permitted by the faculty for a class. The excused absence request must be submitted by the second class meeting and a minimum of two (2) weeks in advance of the absence. Please contact your instructor for the required forms.


Students at CVCC are expected to be honest in all academic pursuits, whether class, lab, shop, or clinical. Acts of academic dishonesty are considered unethical and subject to behavior sanctions. Examples of academic dishonesty include, but are not limited to the following:

1. Sharing information about the content of quizzes, exams, classroom/lab/shop/clinical assignments (scheduled or make-up) without approval of the instructor including but not limited to unauthorized copying, collaboration, or use of notes, books, or other materials when preparing for or completing examinations or other academic assignments (scheduled or make-up).

2. Buying, selling, or otherwise obtaining a copy of a quiz, exams, project, term paper, or like document, without approval of the instructor.

3. Plagiarism, which is defined as the intentional representation of another person's work, words, thoughts, or ideas (from any source) as one's own.

4. Failing to follow approved test taking procedures by performing such acts as:
  • Looking on another student's test
  • Use of unauthorized notes; written, electronic, or otherwise
  • Changing answers after exam is scored
  • Verbal, non-verbal, or electronic communication with another student during an exam

Instructors have the authority to impose either a warning, probation, or dismissal from the class for acts of academic dishonesty relative to classes under their supervision.

Students have an obligation to report any acts of academic dishonesty to the instructor or appropriate campus authority when reasonable grounds exist for such a report. Students also have a responsibility to cooperate in the investigation of any alleged acts of academic dishonesty. Failure to report acts of academic dishonesty could result in a behavior sanction as outlined in the Student Conduct Policy, Policy 3.18


Reporting and Response to Sexual Violence, Sexual or Gender-based Harassment, and Other Sexual Misconduct

"Title IX Violations" is the term that will be used to include "sexual violence, sexual or gender-based harassment, and other sexual misconduct" and is explained further in Procedure 3.18.2. The Procedure can be found on the CVCC Website under About Us/Procedures.

Procedure 3.18.2 applies exclusively to Title IX Violations allegations. All other forms of harassment and/or discrimination are handled under Policy 3.18: Student Code of Conduct.

Students and/or employees are encouraged to report Title IX Violations in any of its forms, including, but not limited to, sexual or gender-based harassment, rape, sexual assault, other forcible and non-forcible sex offenses, domestic or dating violence, or stalking, and CVCC supports this procedure for students and employees in compliance with Title IX legislation.

Any student who believes that he or she is being, or has been subjected to, Title IX Violations is encouraged to file a report of the alleged Title IX Violations promptly with the Title IX Coordinator, Dean for the School of Access, Development, and Success.


To Report a Serious Emergency Dial 911 from any campus phone or 911 from mobile phones; then dial 711 (Campus Safety & Security) from a campus phone.

For specific CVCC emergencies guidelines, please refer to the CVCC Emergency Guidebook


Quickly get all persons behind a locked door, close blinds, lock all windows/doors, and turn off lights. Sit against an interior wall away from windows and doors (hide). Keep cell phones ON in silent mode or vibrate. Do not leave the locked area until notified by a known CVCC administrator or by law enforcement that the emergency is over.

Seek Shelter (tornados, hurricanes, etc.)
Move to hallways and/or other inner rooms. Stay away from windows and doors. Sit on floor facing the inner wall and shield head with hands. Remain in shelter until notified by CVCC administration or by emergency personnel that the danger is over.

Building Evacuation
Leave the building immediately and proceed to a parking lot location at least 300 feet from the building. Do not delay to retrieve books or other personal items. Do not use elevators. Do not touch suspicious objects. Stay clear of the building once outside. Faculty should take class rosters if possible and account for all students at evacuation locations. Report any special assistance needed to CVCC faculty/staff or to emergency personnel. If you are aware or suspect someone is trapped in a threatened building, notify CVCC faculty/staff or emergency personnel. Remain at your building evacuation location until further instructions are provided by CVCC administration or by emergency personnel. In case of bomb threat, avoid using cell phones and wireless devices; this may detonate the bomb.

Smoke, Fire or Hazardous Materials
Activate the nearest fire alarm. Before attempting to fight a fire, notify someone nearby. Never attempt to fight a fire larger than wastebasket size. Close doors and windows to isolate the problem if the situation permits. If trapped in a building during a fire, use wet towels or cloths to protect you from flames and smoke. Stop/drop/roll if your clothes catch on fire. Do not open doors that feel hot. Always stay between the fire and an exit. Stay low to the floor as you try to exit.

Personal Emergencies
Unless you feel threatened, stay with the victim until emergency personnel arrive. Avoid contact with bodily fluids. Stay calm and try to minimize panic. If the person is conscious, ask if he/she is a High School student (if so, include this information in your 911 call).

Emergency Procedures Revised: April 4, 2012

Cell phone backup to 711 Campus Safety & Security:

Printer Friendly Version of DEN 123