This course is a continuation of the didactic dental hygiene concepts necessary for providing an oral prophylaxis. Topics include deposits/removal, instrument sharpening, patient education, fluorides, planning for dental hygiene treatment, charting, and clinical records and procedures. Upon completion, students should be able to demonstrate knowledge needed to complete a thorough oral prophylaxis.

Prerequisites: DEN 120

Corequisites: DEN 131

Class Hours: 2        Lab Hours: 0        Clinical/Work Exp.: 0        Credit Hours: 2



  • Explain the calibration pattern on the PCP-12 and PSR periodontal probes.

  • State the purpose and use of periodontal probing.

  • Differentiate between a sulcus and a pocket.

  • State where the measurement of a sulcus or pocket is taken.

  • List several factors that affect probe determinations.

  • Identify the six specific areas of a tooth where measurements are taken.

  • Describe how to record sulcus depth on a periodontal chart form.

  • Describe the correct angulation of the probe for measuring the contact area.

  • Explain difficulties that might be encountered when probing furcation involvement.

  • Name the probe designed for use in advanced furcation areas.

  • Discuss the rationale for calculating a bleeding index.

  • Describe the technique for determining a bleeding index.

  • List the materials needed to do a complete a periodontal charting.

  • Differentiate between clinical and radiographic charting.

  • Differentiate between dental and periodontal charting.

  • Ilustrate the periodontal conditions with the appropriate symbol according to the Dentrix charting protocol.

  • Accurately indicated other periodontal conditions not addressed in the Dentrix charting protocol in the progress notes of the patient record.


  • Discuss the rationale for completing a plaque index on each patient.

  • Indicate the plaque index utilized in clinic.

  • Describe the technique for completing the plaque index utilized in clinic.

  • Interpret the results of the plaque index as it relates to patient oral health and oral hygiene practices.

  • Utilize the results of the plaque index address patient education needs and determining the appropriate oral hygiene aids and techniques.


  • State the historical development of toothbrushes.

  • Identify preferred manual toothbrush characteristics.

  • Identify the leading toothbrush manufacturers.

  • Select the appropriate toothbrush for each patient.

  • Discuss the various electric toothbrushes available on the market.

  • State the purposes and indications for use of powered toothbrushes and describe their method of use.

  • Discuss the care of toothbrushes.

  • State the purpose of the various toothbrushing techniques and their indications for use.

  • Describe the various toothbrushing methods.

  • State the consequences of improper toothbrushing.

  • Select a brushing method based on the patient’s needs, oral health status, manual dexterity, learning level and ability to integrate the method into his/her oral hygiene practices.

  • Explain the purpose of interdental plaque control.

  • Describe the various types of interdental cleaning aids.

  • Discuss when interdental cleaning should be carried out as part of the homecare.

  • Describe the appropriate technique for applying finger manipulated flossing.

  • Select the appropriate interdental cleaning aid based on the patient’s needs, oral health status, manual dexterity, learning level and the ability to integrate the method into his/her oral hygiene practices.

  • Discuss the various oral physiotherapy aids available for patient use.

  • Describe the technique employed in the use of various oral physiotherapy aids.

  • Select the appropriate oral physiotherapy aids based on the patient’s needs, oral health status, manual dexterity, learning level and ability to integrate the method into his/her oral hygiene practices.

  • State the purpose of disclosing agents.

  • Indicate the acceptable characteristics of disclosing agents.

  • Discuss the various disclosing agent formulas.

  • State how disclosing agents are applied.

  • Discuss the role of disclosing agents in patient instruction.


  • Discuss the basic components of dentifrice and the purpose of each.

  • Describe factors to consider in the selection and recommendation of dentifrice for patients.

  • Select the appropriate dentifrice(s) based on the patient’s needs, oral health status, manual dexterity, learning level and ability to integrate the method into his/her oral hygiene practices.

  • Discuss the purposes and uses of various mouthrinse solutions.

  • List the different types of self-prepared mouthrinses and the components of each.

  • Discuss commercially available mouthrinses and the active ingredient in each.

  • Identify the preventive and therapeutic agent in various mouthrinses.

  • Select the appropriate mouthrinses based on the patient’s needs, oral health status, manual dexterity, learning level and ability to integrate the method into his/her oral hygiene practices.


  • Discuss the various steps in a preventive program.

  • Discuss the principles of learning.

  • Indicate each “rungs” on the learning ladder and what is occurring with the learner on each “rung”.

  • Indicate the ideal time to teach the patient during the appointment and the reasons why.

  • Indicate the ideal setting for patient instruction and why.

  • Develop a plaque control program for an adult patient.

  • Develop a plaque control program for a pediatric patient (include parent instruction).

  • Indicate the preferred characteristics of teaching aids used in patient education.

  • Discuss the various teaching aids that can be utilized in patient education and the advantages and disadvantages of each.

  • Effectively communicate the patient and/or parent/caregiver during patient education.

  • Create active participation on the part of the learner.

  • Give immediate feedback to the learner so he/she can access his/her performance.

  • Present oral health information in positive terms.

  • Adjust the rate of oral health instruction to the rate of the learner.

  • Be sensitive to the cultural practices, religious practices, etc. of the learner.


  • Define treatment plan and explain its importance.

  • Describe the five components of the dental hygiene process of care.

  • Discuss the concept of dental hygiene diagnosis (interpretation).

  • Discuss the concept of dental hygiene prognosis.

  • Discuss the various factors that affect the dental hygiene treatment plan.

  • Indicate the appropriate sequence of care for patient treatment.

  • Explain at what point the treatment plan is formulated and where and how it is recorded.

  • Formulate and record a treatment plan that identifies and address the needs and accomplishes the goals of the patient.

  • Explain informed consent.

  • Indicate the criteria need to obtain informed consent.

  • Explain informed refusal.

  • Explain why the treatment plan of a minor or mentally compromised patient is discussed with the parent or legal guardian.


  • List the characteristics of extrinsic dental stains.

  • List the characteristics of intrinsic dental stains.

  • Define exogenous as it relates to dental stains.

  • Define endogenous as it relates to dental stains.

  • Describe the etiology, clinical appearance, most frequent location (distribution) and occurrence of:
    • Yellow stain.
    • Green stain.
    • Black line or mesenteric stain.
    • Brown stain.
    • Tobacco stain.
    • Orange stain.
    • Metallic.
    • Chemical.

  • Describe the following intrinsic stains:
    • Stain of non-vital tooth.
    • Tetracycline stain.
    • Dental fluorosis, mild moderate, severe.

  • Explain how the following contribute to extrinsic stain accumulation:
    • Inadequate homecare (state of oral hygiene).
    • Malpositioned teeth (location of tooth in arch).
    • Tooth abnormalities (surface texture).
    • Contour of tooth.


  • List the effects of polishing.

  • Explain the indications for extrinsic stain removal.

  • Summarize the contraindications for extrinsic stain removal.

  • State the characteristics of abrasive particles.

  • Identify commonly used abrasive agents and note their specific uses.

  • Discuss the concept of selective polishing.

  • Select and apply polishing agents that will preserve the integrity of the enamel and soft tissues.

  • Identify the instruments used for extrinsic stain removal.

  • Describe how plaque and the polishing agent are removed from proximal tooth surfaces.


  • Define fluoride and fluoridation.

  • Identify the availability of fluoride.

  • List the benefits of fluoride.

  • Discuss the process for fluoride metabolism including uptake, absorption, distribution, retention and excretion.

  • Describe the deposition of fluoride during pre-eruptive mineralization of the teeth, pre-eruptive maturation of the teeth and post-eruption.

  • Differentiate among the fluoride levels cementum, dentin and enamel.

  • Discuss various effects fluoride has on demineralization, bacterial plaque, post-eruptive maturation of surface enamel, and enamel solubility and resistance.

  • List the various forms of dietary fluoride supplements.

  • Determine the appropriate dosage of fluoride prescriptions based on the individual.

  • Identify professional topical fluorides and modes of application.

  • Identify fluoridated mouthrinses and the fluoride content in each.

  • Identify fluoridated dentifrices and the fluoride content in each.

  • Prepare a fluoride therapy program for caries susceptible patients.

  • Indicate the Certainly Lethal Dose (CLD) and Safely Tolerated Dose (STD) of fluoride for an adult and pediatric patient.

  • Discuss the signs and symptoms of acute fluoride toxicity and the emergency treatment.

  • Discuss the signs of chronic fluoride toxicity.

  • Given the formulae, calculate amounts of fluoride in a given compound.


  • Discuss the different types of sealants available.

  • Describe the composition of sealant material.

  • Discuss the role of the etching solution in the application of sealants.

  • Describe the clinical procedure for applying sealants.

  • List factors that effect the penetrability of the sealant material.

  • Successfully apply sealants.


  • Identify the location of the various charting forms.

  • Organize the patient record according to clinical protocol.

  • Accurately record patient information in the patient record according to clinical protocol.

  • Update the patient record appropriately.


  • Discuss the procedure for scheduling patients for clinical appointments (screenings, initial clinic appointment, subsequent appointments).

  • Schedule patients for clinical appointments following clinical protocol.

  • Reappoint patients for clinical appointments following clinical protocol.

  • Discuss the confirmation process for patient appointments.

  • Appropriately confirm clinical appointments with the patient.

  • Discuss need and strategies for ensuring that a patient is secured for each clinical session.


  • Describe and list characteristics of fixed partial dentures.

  • Describe the care procedures for fixed partial dentures and abutment teeth.

  • List and describe types of removable partial prostheses.

  • Describe patient self-care procedures for removable partial prostheses.

  • Describe, list purposes for, and describe care of obturators.

  • List types and identify components of complete dentures.

  • Describe the need for and procedures for cleaning dentures via self care and professional methods.

  • Describe the examination of and care for the underlying mucosa.


  • Identify various stones (manmade and natural) and devices utilized for instrument sharpening.

  • List the objectives of instrument sharpening.

  • Describe the various techniques for sharpening instruments.

  • Demonstrate the various instrument sharpening techniques.

  • Demonstrates the proper instrument sharpening technique on the following:
    • Universal curet.
    • Area specific curet.
    • Scaler.


  • Identify and describe various cameras, cheek retractors, and mirrors used to take specific clinical extraoral and intraoral photos.

  • Discuss the appropriate technique, i.e. f-stop, film speed, etc. for exposing intraoral and extraoral photos.

  • Use the appropriate cheek retractors and mirrors for specific clinical extraoral and intraoral photos.

  • Expose quality extraoral and intraoral photos using the extraoral cameras, retractors, and mirrors.


  • List the various types of intraoral cameras currently available.

  • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of intraoral camera use in the dental practice.

  • Explain the use of intraoral cameras for patient education purposes.


  • Explain the rationale for airway skills taking priority over other basic life support skills.

  • List the signs of inadequate breathing.

  • Discuss the appropriate management of an obstructed airway.

  • Discuss the correct operation of an oxygen tank and regulator.

  • Discuss the decontamination protocol for items and materials used in airway management, ventilation and oxygen therapy.

  • Discuss the management of various medical emergencies that may occur in the clinical setting.

  • Identify the location of the emergency cart and oxygen tank.

  • Describe each item located on the emergency cart and its role in managing a medical emergency.


  • Discuss basic legal and ethical concepts related to:
    • Patient assessment.
    • Patient education.
    • Patient record management.
    • Dental hygiene care planning.
    • Medical emergency management and prevention.


A Excellent 4 Grade Points Numerical grade of 90 - 100
B Above Average 3 Grade Points Numerical grade of 80 - 89
C Average 2 Grade Points Numerical grade of 70 - 79
D Below Average 1 Grade Point Numerical grade of 60 - 69
F Failed 0 Grade Point Numerical below 60
WP Withdraw Passing 0 Grade Point Issued if the course is dropped after the
census date and on or before the 60% point
of the course unless the instructor issues
a WF based on extenuating circumstances
WF Withdraw Failing 0 Grade Point Issued if the course is dropped after the
60% point of the course or the instructor
chooses based on extenuating circumstances


Regular, prompt attendance is essential for academic success. Students should strive for perfect attendance. It is recognized, however, that students may be absent from class occasionally. Students should reference the instructor's syllabus to determine the attendance requirement for this course. The instructor is responsible for enforcing the attendance requirement. It is the student's responsibility to withdraw from the course. Students may complete the withdrawal process in the Advising Center. Students may receive a grade of WP if they withdraw from a course by the 60% point/date of the course. Any student withdrawals that occur after the 60% point will result in a grade of WF. Exceptions to the "WF" grade may exist if the student has a mitigating circumstance. Students are encouraged to discuss withdrawal options with the faculty member and complete the withdrawal process in the Advising Center.


If you have a documented disability and wish to discuss academic accommodations, please contact Frank Pait, Counselor for Students with Disabilities, at extension 4222, in the Learning Assistance Center (LAC) located on the first floor of the Cuyler A. Dunbar Building (CAD).

If you are a student with a mobility impairment and have a class in a multi-story building, please discuss evacuation plans with your instructor.


Students shall be permitted excused absences from all classes two days per academic year for religious observances required by their faith. The absences requested in accordance with this policy are "one of" and not "in addition to" any absences otherwise permitted by the faculty for a class. The excused absence request must be submitted by the second class meeting and a minimum of two (2) weeks in advance of the absence. Please contact your instructor for the required forms.


Students at CVCC are expected to be honest in all academic pursuits, whether class, lab, shop, or clinical. Acts of academic dishonesty are considered unethical and subject to behavior sanctions. Examples of academic dishonesty include, but are not limited to the following:

1. Sharing information about the content of quizzes, exams, classroom/lab/shop/clinical assignments (scheduled or make-up) without approval of the instructor including but not limited to unauthorized copying, collaboration, or use of notes, books, or other materials when preparing for or completing examinations or other academic assignments (scheduled or make-up).

2. Buying, selling, or otherwise obtaining a copy of a quiz, exams, project, term paper, or like document, without approval of the instructor.

3. Plagiarism, which is defined as the intentional representation of another person's work, words, thoughts, or ideas (from any source) as one's own.

4. Failing to follow approved test taking procedures by performing such acts as:
  • Looking on another student's test
  • Use of unauthorized notes; written, electronic, or otherwise
  • Changing answers after exam is scored
  • Verbal, non-verbal, or electronic communication with another student during an exam

Instructors have the authority to impose either a warning, probation, or dismissal from the class for acts of academic dishonesty relative to classes under their supervision.

Students have an obligation to report any acts of academic dishonesty to the instructor or appropriate campus authority when reasonable grounds exist for such a report. Students also have a responsibility to cooperate in the investigation of any alleged acts of academic dishonesty. Failure to report acts of academic dishonesty could result in a behavior sanction as outlined in the Student Conduct Policy, Policy 3.18


Reporting and Response to Sexual Violence, Sexual or Gender-based Harassment, and Other Sexual Misconduct

"Title IX Violations" is the term that will be used to include "sexual violence, sexual or gender-based harassment, and other sexual misconduct" and is explained further in Procedure 3.18.2. The Procedure can be found on the CVCC Website under About Us/Procedures.

Procedure 3.18.2 applies exclusively to Title IX Violations allegations. All other forms of harassment and/or discrimination are handled under Policy 3.18: Student Code of Conduct.

Students and/or employees are encouraged to report Title IX Violations in any of its forms, including, but not limited to, sexual or gender-based harassment, rape, sexual assault, other forcible and non-forcible sex offenses, domestic or dating violence, or stalking, and CVCC supports this procedure for students and employees in compliance with Title IX legislation.

Any student who believes that he or she is being, or has been subjected to, Title IX Violations is encouraged to file a report of the alleged Title IX Violations promptly with the Title IX Coordinator, Dean for the School of Access, Development, and Success.


To Report a Serious Emergency Dial 911 from any campus phone or 911 from mobile phones; then dial 711 (Campus Safety & Security) from a campus phone.

For specific CVCC emergencies guidelines, please refer to the CVCC Emergency Guidebook


Quickly get all persons behind a locked door, close blinds, lock all windows/doors, and turn off lights. Sit against an interior wall away from windows and doors (hide). Keep cell phones ON in silent mode or vibrate. Do not leave the locked area until notified by a known CVCC administrator or by law enforcement that the emergency is over.

Seek Shelter (tornados, hurricanes, etc.)
Move to hallways and/or other inner rooms. Stay away from windows and doors. Sit on floor facing the inner wall and shield head with hands. Remain in shelter until notified by CVCC administration or by emergency personnel that the danger is over.

Building Evacuation
Leave the building immediately and proceed to a parking lot location at least 300 feet from the building. Do not delay to retrieve books or other personal items. Do not use elevators. Do not touch suspicious objects. Stay clear of the building once outside. Faculty should take class rosters if possible and account for all students at evacuation locations. Report any special assistance needed to CVCC faculty/staff or to emergency personnel. If you are aware or suspect someone is trapped in a threatened building, notify CVCC faculty/staff or emergency personnel. Remain at your building evacuation location until further instructions are provided by CVCC administration or by emergency personnel. In case of bomb threat, avoid using cell phones and wireless devices; this may detonate the bomb.

Smoke, Fire or Hazardous Materials
Activate the nearest fire alarm. Before attempting to fight a fire, notify someone nearby. Never attempt to fight a fire larger than wastebasket size. Close doors and windows to isolate the problem if the situation permits. If trapped in a building during a fire, use wet towels or cloths to protect you from flames and smoke. Stop/drop/roll if your clothes catch on fire. Do not open doors that feel hot. Always stay between the fire and an exit. Stay low to the floor as you try to exit.

Personal Emergencies
Unless you feel threatened, stay with the victim until emergency personnel arrive. Avoid contact with bodily fluids. Stay calm and try to minimize panic. If the person is conscious, ask if he/she is a High School student (if so, include this information in your 911 call).

Emergency Procedures Revised: April 4, 2012

Cell phone backup to 711 Campus Safety & Security:

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